The quality of Ultra-pure water is an important factor for yield rate and profitability in nanoelectronics manufacturing
The highest grade (Type 1) of Ultra-pure water (UPW) is used in the manufacturing process of nanoelectronic components. The components are built by assembling thousands of integrated circuits. The components must be cleaned after each step of manufacture, which means that it is rinsed in UPW a hundred times or more to remove all chemicals and reaction products that have been used in the manufacturing process. Removing these contaminants is critical to commercial viability. Any contaminant that is left may cause short circuit or malfunction which will cause the component to be scrapped in the final quality test. Having many components scrapped is characterized as low yield rate and is a major threat to profitability. A consistent supply of pure water is necessary in order to keep reject rates (scrapping) down.