To obtain purest water possible, the nanoelectronics industry adopts most of the major established water purification technologies in sequential steps where one step removes a set of particular contaminants but may also introduces other contaminants which have to be removed by a subsequent step. 15-20 purification steps or more in sequence will generally be required.
A typical state-of-the-art system is represented schematically
LastRinse only distinguishes between two types of contamination. Volatile and non-volatile. LastRinse first removes volatiles from the feed water by degassing. Pure water is then extracted from the remaining feed in molecular form. The feed is turned into a concentrated brine. A part of the brine is continuously tapped and concentrated to solid waste by evaporation.